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What is menthofuran in pennyroyal?

Menthofuran is an organic compound found in a variety of essential oils including that of pennyroyal ( Mentha pulegium ). It is highly toxic and believed to be the primary toxin in pennyroyal responsible for its potentially fatal effects.

Is menthofuran toxic to humans?

It is highly toxic and believed to be the primary toxin in pennyroyal responsible for its potentially fatal effects. After ingestion of menthofuran, it is metabolically activated to chemically reactive intermediates that are hepatotoxic. Menthofuran is produced biosynthetically from pulegone by the enzyme menthofuran synthase .

What is the mechanism of action of menthofuran?

Menthofuran is a metabolite of pulegone. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have found the pulegone metabolite menthofuran to be an inhibitor of CYP2A6. Menthofuran may deplete glutathione levels, leaving hepatocytes vulnerable to free radical damage.

How is menthofuran made from pulegone?

Menthofuran is produced biosynthetically from pulegone by the enzyme menthofuran synthase . Menthofuran can be synthesized from 5-methylcyclohexane-1,3-dione and allenyldimethylsulfonium bromide in two steps via a furannulation strategy consisting of enolate addition and rearrangement. Menthofuran is a metabolite of pulegone.


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